Artificial intelligence (AI)
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science dealing with the simulation of human thought processes. AI is a broad term that includes machine learning, natural language processing, expert systems, cognitive architectures, neural networks, autonomous agents, robotics, and many others.
The term AI is often associated with robots and self-driving cars, but the technology behind these applications is actually much older than we may think. In fact, AI was first developed thousands of years ago by ancient civilizations. Today, AI is being used in many different ways across industries and fields.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a term that describes machines that perform tasks just like humans do. AI has been around since the 1950s, but recently it has become much more popular. There are two types of AI: machine learning and deep learning. Machine learning is a type of AI where computers learn things over time. Deep learning is a type of artificial intelligence where computers learn things based on how similar objects look.
Facebook’s algorithm is not only responsible for determining what content appears on its platform, but also how users interact with each other. In fact, the company claims that it determines what people see in their newsfeed based on a combination of factors, including who they’re connected to, what posts they’ve interacted with, and even their location.
Algorithms are rules that computers use to make decisions. These algorithms are often used to determine whether something should be allowed on a website or not. For example, if a user tries to access a page that contains information about illegal activities, then the site may decide to block that person from accessing any further pages.
Social media sites have become increasingly popular over the past decade. Sites like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube allow people to share their experiences and connect with others across the globe.
The news feed is where friends’ updates appear. Users can choose to follow certain people and receive updates from them. Updates can range from mundane things (e.g., someone liked a photo) to interesting topics (e.g., a celebrity got engaged).
When a friend recommends something to you, it means that he or she thinks you’ll enjoy it. If you click on the link, you can read reviews written by other people who have already experienced the product.
Users can press the like button to show their approval of a post. When someone likes a status update, it shows up in his or her news feed.
Timelines are similar to news feeds. However, instead of showing recent activity, timelines display older posts.
Machine learning is a subfield of artificial intelligence concerned with the construction and study of algorithms that teach computers how to learn without being explicitly programmed.
Machine learning is a subset of AI that focuses on training machines to perform specific tasks automatically. A computer program is created to teach a computer how to complete a task based on experience. Machine learning is used in many different industries including finance, healthcare, marketing, manufacturing, and customer service.
Deep learning is a subset of machine learning that involves building computational models that have multiple levels of representation. These deep learning models are trained using techniques similar to those used in supervised learning, but instead of having examples labeled by humans, they are provided with unlabeled data and then trained to recognize patterns in the data.
Deep learning is a subset of machine learning that uses artificial neural networks to train computers to learn without explicitly programmed rules. These networks are trained using massive amounts of data and then applied to new situations. Deep learning is primarily used in image recognition, speech processing, and natural language processing.
Neural networks are computing systems inspired by the structure and function of neurons in the brain. Neural networks are capable of performing complex tasks by combining simple rules or operations.
Neural networks are a group of algorithms that mimic the way neurons work together in our brains. These algorithms are used in deep learning to recognize patterns in data and make predictions.
An autonomous agent is a system that performs some task(s) based on its own goals, rather than relying on instructions from a central controller. An example would be a self-driving car.
Self-driving cars are cars that drive themselves. They use technology to detect obstacles and other vehicles. They then change their course to avoid collisions. Google has created a prototype self-driving car. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University have built a self-driving car that drives itself across campus. Companies like Uber and Lyft already offer rides in self-driving taxis.
An autonomous agent is a computer program that performs tasks without human intervention. An example would be a robot that moves around and cleans your house. Autonomous agents have been developed for many different purposes. One of the first uses was to create self-driving cars.
These vehicles use sensors to detect obstacles and other cars. Once they have detected something, they react accordingly by changing their direction or speed. Another application of autonomous agents is in video games. Video game developers use them to make sure that players don’t cheat. If a player does something wrong, the game could send out an autonomous agent to punish the player.
Cognitive architectures are frameworks for understanding and reasoning about cognition. A cognitive architecture is a set of concepts and theories that describe how people think, perceive, remember, communicate, plan, make decisions, solve problems, etc.
Expert systems are knowledge-based systems designed to simulate the decision-making of experts in specific fields.
Reinforcement learning is a type of machine learning where a computer learns from its mistakes and rewards to improve performance. This method is commonly used in video games and robotics.
In reinforcement learning, we learn how to act in order to maximize our rewards. In the case of a bot, we want to maximize the number of points we get. We do this by taking actions (i.e., what to say) and observing the results of those actions. If we observe good results, then we take more actions; if we observe bad results, then we take less actions. This cycle continues until we have maximized our reward.
Q-learning is a type of reinforcement learning algorithm. It was first introduced in 1980 by Richard Sutton and Andrew Barto in their book “Reinforcement Learning”. Q-learning is based on the idea of predicting future rewards. When using Q-learning, we predict the value of each possible action, called the Q-value. Then, we choose the best action based on these predictions.
Actor-critic algorithms are a class of reinforcement learning algorithms that combine both actor and critic methods. They were first introduced by DeepMind researchers Yee Whye Teh and Greg Brockman in 2011. These algorithms use two neural networks: an actor network and a critic network. The actor network predicts the optimal action given the current state, while the critic network evaluates the quality of the predicted action.
Policy Gradient Methods
Policy gradient methods are a class of reinforcement algorithms that learn a policy function. A policy function maps states to actions. Policy gradient methods optimize the policy function directly rather than optimizing the expected return.
Experience replay is a technique where experiences are stored in memory. This allows us to reuse them later on. It is commonly used in deep reinforcement learning.
Double DQN is a double Q-network method. It uses two separate Q-networks to predict the Q-values of different actions. One of the networks is trained to predict the long-term reward and the other is trained to predict the short-term reward.
Trust Region Policy Optimization
Trust region policy optimization is a model-free reinforcement learning algorithm. It works by updating the parameters of the policy function instead of the weights of the neural network.
Genetic algorithms are computational techniques inspired by evolution. They use random processes to find optimal solutions to problems.
Evolutionary programming is a technique that combines genetic algorithms with evolutionary computing. It’s used to create programs that solve complex optimization problems.
Robotics is a field of study that involves building robots. Robots are devices that move around and do specific tasks. They can be controlled by a person or programmed to work automatically. In some cases, people build robots to help them with certain jobs. For example, a farmer might need a robot to pick crops. A construction worker might need a robot to build his house.
Augmented reality (AR) is a combination of real and virtual worlds. AR headsets superimpose digital information onto the physical world. AR is being used to develop apps for mobile phones. For example, if you’re playing Pokémon Go, you may catch a wild Pikachu while walking down the street.
Virtual reality (VR) is a computer simulation that creates a virtual world. VR headsets let users experience a virtual environment. Users wear special goggles that show images from the computer. This makes the user feel like he or she is actually present in the virtual world. VR has applications in gaming, medicine, business, and education.
Cybersecurity is protecting computers and networks from hackers. Hackers try to break into computers to steal data or damage the network. Cybersecurity professionals protect companies’ valuable information.